Thursday, March 26, 2015

INFINITY AND THE MöBIUS UNIVERSE

by Kenneth Harper Finton ©2015  (03.14.15, 9:26:43)

Beyond the edges of the universe is an infinity of nothingness. In order to understand existence, we need to attempt to understand this infinity. Infinity is not emptiness or space. It is has no beginning and no ending. In our minds it is a concept, an idea where everything that is probable is possible. In mathematics and literature, infinity is a series of events and ideas and numbers that has no ending. Mathematics stretches into infinity from the start at zero. There is no end to numbers. They constantly become bigger and bigger.
The universe is flat and shaped by geometric principles according to the latest astronomical observations.That time and space are bent is a fact that is well proven mathematically.
A Möbius strip made with a piece of paper and tape. If an ant were to crawl along the length of this strip, it would return to its starting point having traversed the entire length of the strip (on both sides of the original paper) without ever crossing an edge.
A MÖBIUS STRIP MADE WITH A PIECE OF PAPER AND TAPE. IF AN ANT WERE TO CRAWL ALONG THE LENGTH OF THIS STRIP, IT WOULD RETURN TO ITS STARTING POINT HAVING TRAVERSED THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE STRIP (ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ORIGINAL PAPER) WITHOUT EVER CROSSING AN EDGE.
Anything curved on a flat plane (i.e., the universe) will eventually return to its starting point and start the journey again. If the universe is in the form of a möbius strip, as some have come to believe, then it curves back upon itself so that it has no beginning nor ending. it repeats itself endlessly. A möbius strip has one boundary. A line drawn on this strip does not cross its point of origin until it has traversed both sides of the paper. In doing this, the line doubles the original size as opposed to a line drawn on a piece of paper not joined with a twist. A good explanation of this is found in the Wikipedia:
“Cutting a Möbius strip along the center line with a pair of scissors yields one long strip with two full twists in it, rather than two separate strips; the result is not a Möbius strip. This happens because the original strip only has one edge that is twice as long as the original strip. Cutting creates a second independent edge, half of which was on each side of the scissors. Cutting this new, longer, strip down the middle creates two strips wound around each other, each with two full twists.MOBIUS knot
“If the strip is cut along about a third of the way in from the edge, it creates two strips: One is a thinner Möbius strip – it is the center third of the original strip, comprising 1/3 of the width and the same length as the original strip. The other is a longer but thin strip with two full twists in it – this is a neighborhood of the edge of the original strip, and it comprises 1/3 of the width and twice the length of the original strip.
“Other analogous strips can be obtained by similarly joining strips with two or more half-twists in them instead of one. For example, a strip with three half-twists, when divided lengthwise, becomes a strip tied in a trefoil knot. (If this knot is unravelled, the strip is made with eight half-twists in addition to anoverhand knot.) A strip with N half-twists, when bisected, becomes a strip with N + 1 full twists. Giving it extra twists and reconnecting the ends produces figures called paradromic rings.”
The möbius strip with one twist and pinched in the middle looks like the symbol for infinity.
Some believe that our universe is actualized as a möbius strip with a finite number of twists of the vibrating strings in space. It is finite in that by going forward it transverses time and space, turning in a warped circle as it experieinfinitynces its own starting point. It recurs over and over again, perhaps eternally.
MOBiUS UNIVERSE
The universe came from nothing; the nothing that formed the being and existence in the universe is infinite. That this has to be so is inescapable. People have long argued about first causes, but nothingness had to come into existence. There is no other logical answer. Infinity is needed to have the finite. They are the yin and yang of existence itself.
The nothing that is beyond the boundary of our universe is infinity. It both exits and does not exist simultaneously. It has never been actualized because it has no dimension. Nothingness has everything to do with being and existence because everything is made manifest through nothingness. Nothing actually does exist and it has always been that way. The duality of being disappears in the infinity of nothingness.
When we realize that nothing really exists, this is not the height of nihilistic thought, but a universal condition that implores understanding. The sentence itself implies that nothing does exist, but that nothing is neither material nor spacial nor a part of time. This discovery does not negate the chemical composition of matter in our actual world, but helps to further refine its essence. That nothing exists does not mean that the world is an illusion or organic chemistry cannot help us lead better lives. It means that the world developed from nothing and exists despite its ghostly origin.
A TALE OF TWO POINTS
In a single dimension we have a point. In two dimensions we have a line and other flat objects that exist on a plane. In three dimensions we have depth by the actualizing of space. In the fourth dimension we have time by the actualizing of duration in spacetime. Möbius forms are the gateway to the fourth dimension. I quote here from Wikipedia, There is considerable math in this article, but it illustrates the point I am trying make: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-dimensional_space
Vectors
Mathematically four-dimensional space is simply a space with four spatial dimensions, that is a space that needs four parameters to specify a point in it. For example, a general point might have position vector a, equal to
This can be written in terms of the four standard basis vectors (e1e2e3e4), given by
so the general vector a is
Vectors add, subtract and scale as in three dimensions.
The dot product of Euclidean three-dimensional space generalizes to four dimensions as
It can be used to calculate the norm or length of a vector,
and calculate or define the angle between two vectors as
Minkowski spacetime is four-dimensional space with geometry defined by a nondegenerate pairing different from the dot product:
As an example, the distance squared between the points (0,0,0,0) and (1,1,1,0) is 3 in both the Euclidean and Minkowskian 4-spaces, while the distance squared between (0,0,0,0) and (1,1,1,1) is 4 in Euclidean space and 2 in Minkowski space; increasing actually decreases the metric distance. This leads to many of the well known apparent “paradoxes” of relativity.
The cross product is not defined in four dimensions. Instead the exterior product is used for some applications, and is defined as follows:
This is bivector valued, with bivectors in four dimensions forming a six-dimensional linear space with basis (e12e13e14e23e24e34). They can be used to generate rotations in four dimensions.
Bonan-Jeener's Klein Surface 2 
Courtesy of Jos Leys
BONAN-JEENER’S KLEIN SURFACE 2 
COURTESY OF JOS LEYS
In 1993, the physicist Gerard ‘t Hooft put forward the holographic principle, which explains that the information about an extra dimension is visible as a curvature in a spacetime with one fewer dimension. For example, holograms are three-dimensional pictures placed on a two-dimensional surface, which gives the image a curvature when the observer moves. Similarly, in general relativity, the fourth dimension is manifested in observable three dimensions as the curvature path of a moving infinitesimal (test) particle. Hooft has speculated that the fifth dimension is really the spacetime fabric.
The physical universe is widely seen to be composed of “matter” and “energy”. In his 2003 article published in Scientific American magazine, Jacob Bekenstein summarized a current trend started by John Archibald Wheeler, which suggests scientists may “regard the physical world as made of information, with energy and matter as incidentals.” Bekenstein asks “Could we, as William Blake memorably penned, ‘see a world in a grain of sand,’ or is that idea no more than ‘poetic license,'”[14] referring to the holographic principle.
Unexpected Connection
Bekenstein’s topical overview “A Tale of Two Entropies”[15] describes potentially profound implications of Wheeler’s trend, in part by noting a previously unexpected connection between the world of information theory and classical physics. This connection was first described shortly after the seminal 1948 papers of American applied mathematician Claude E. Shannonintroduced today’s most widely used measure of information content, now known as Shannon entropy. As an objective measure of the quantity of information, Shannon entropy has been enormously useful, as the design of all modern communications and data storage devices, from cellular phones to modems to hard disk drives and DVDs, rely on Shannon entropy.
In thermodynamics (the branch of physics dealing with heat), entropy is popularly described as a measure of the “disorder” in a physical system of matter and energy. In 1877 Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann described it more precisely in terms of the number of distinct microscopic states that the particles composing a macroscopic “chunk” of matter could be in while still looking like the same macroscopic “chunk”. As an example, for the air in a room, its thermodynamic entropy would equal the logarithm of the count of all the ways that the individual gas molecules could be distributed in the room, and all the ways they could be moving.
Energy, matter, and information equivalence
Shannon’s efforts to find a way to quantify the information contained in, for example, an e-mail message, led him unexpectedly to a formula with the same form as Boltzmann’s. In an article in the August 2003 issue of Scientific American titled “Information in the Holographic Universe”, Bekenstein summarizes that “Thermodynamic entropy and Shannon entropy are conceptually equivalent: the number of arrangements that are counted by Boltzmann entropy reflects the amount of Shannon information one would need to implement any particular arrangement…” of matter and energy. The only salient difference between the thermodynamic entropy of physics and Shannon’s entropy of information is in the units of measure; the former is expressed in units of energy divided by temperature, the latter in essentially dimensionless “bits” of information, and so the difference is merely a matter of convention.
The holographic principle states that the entropy of ordinary mass (not just black holes) is also proportional to surface area and not volume; that volume itself is illusory and the universe is really a hologram which is isomorphic to the information “inscribed” on the surface of its boundary.[10]
But what does this have to do with the concept of infinity, which we have determined is beyond time and space? Infinity, in this sense, is non-existence. It is nothing. Nothingness has everything to do with being and existence because it is the source of everything. The actualized world is similar to a holographic projection on the one boundary that separates our actual world from the infinity of nothingness. Infinity actualizes the world and universe that we conceive on the plane boundary between our existent universe and the infinity of nothingness. This boundary is where existence is actualized.  (See  You tube video.)
There is nothing in matter. The particles that make up the actualizations of matter are both wave forms without mass and particles composed of energy that has been actualized into having mass. There are no smallest particles. Wave forms that have no mass are spread completely through space.They are manifestations of infinity within time. This is the lesson we should learn from quantum physics. The universe about us is a ghostly materialization, a projection from the infinity of nothingness.
Our physical world can best be understood as information–events and experience actualized from an infinite pool of possibilities and potentialities.  The connection of the physical world to the unrealized nothingness of infinity is partly explained by the idea of unrealized potential that has never come into being. One part of this physical world has been realized and actualized. We call this the present and the past. It exists in the dimensions of space and time. We imagine it to be the future.
The world itself is part of an infinite system that comes from a zero dimension without time and space. In zero dimension there is not even a point, as points are one dimensional. This also means there is no point to infinity. It simply is.
The math and the patterns that make up our physical world have always existed by necessity. These are the laws that create the pattens and systems that make up our actuality. Those laws and patterns of geometry, like infinity, have no beginning nor ending. Beginnings and endings are defined by space and time. Since space and time and nature itself follows the forms of process expressed in mathematical principals, then these principles have to precede existence and are actualized in some manner outside of time and space.
How this can be so in something that does not exist is perplexing. What is it that can both not exist and exist at the same moment? Is there something in that nothingness after all? If so, what is it?
It is what we call infinity.
We have to come to grips with what infinity is, as all things finite are necessarily incorporated in infinity. You cannot have a finite world without infinity.
Yet, we can show that this infinity has no known plan or purpose, as religions lead us to believe. It has no need for a point because a point is dimensional. Even plans and purposes are human values and ideas.
There are both mathematical and communicational uses for a point. In math, it refers to a particular object that cannot be defined in terms of previously defined objects. In communication, it is an idea that you use to try to express a view from information. That infinity has no point is an expression of both definitions. Further, because this infinity is present in everything (there is no smallest anything), everything is part of infinity. That is all there is. All is nothingness and matter is incidental. Matter simply records events. Events are objects relating to one another. This relating is information. This nothingness is not the God of religions, it is not Void, it is not a master plan. It is another dimension to which we have no access at all because we are in time and space and infinity is not.
Infinity can be pictured as the nothingness that is everywhere and present before the universe and world was materialized. It is complete within itself and holds all that is made manifest and actualized. It is the one thing that exists and does not exist simultaneously. That which is actualized is part of infinity itself.
Infinity is an idea. Although it is a human idea and discovery, it appears and is made manifest without the need for humans at all. Infinity precedes existence itself. Infinity projects nothingness into existence through the actualization of dimensions such as space and time, depth and duration.
It should not surprise us then that we are a part of an existence whose most basic substance is simply an idea formed from imagination and built through the accumulation of information. It should not surprise us that we are actualized from infinite nothingness. Infinity is timeless and eternal. For infinity, there is only a manifested Now.
Time and space is not a concern in a zero dimension.The world and the universe about us is finite and repetitive because of its dimensions, its circular shape and orbits and the processes that infinity forms for existence to be actualized.
This video may be a bit misleading if you find that the future is fully determined. The idea is to show that in infinity all time is now. How it is recorded and how the future comes to be will be addressed later. The future is still undetermined and not actualized. It exists in an infinite field of things that can potentially happen and is not realized until free will and choice makes a decision and action that brings it into being. Similarly, the past has already been actualized and the record of it exists in the matter in the world we inhabit. There are at least 23 dimensions that we cannot see in our three-dimensional world. Everything that every existed still lives there.


That the past is still in the now as much as the present and the future is surely an existential revelation that can have great emotional repercussions on our individual lives. We are as eternal as the now. Those experiences that we lived and loved, the people we loved and lost, those things live on in infinity. Nothing is lost. Nothing is gained. We may have lost heaven, but we have gained eternity. This is our reward for understanding infinity and eternity.